Thursday, July 29, 2010


What is it?
Thrombocytopenia is the lack of platelets in the blood. A normal human has about 150 000 to 450 000 platelets per microliter. A person is considered to have Thrombocytopenia when he/she has a platelet count of less than 5000 per microliter.

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Thrombocytopenia may result from the use of certain drugs, quinidine, rifampin, heparin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, histamine blockers, most chemotherapeutic agents, allopurinol and alcohol.



Treatment of thrombocytopenia varies according to the cause. If thrombocytopenia is drug-induced, then removal of the offending agents should correct the condition.

Corticosteroids may be used to increase platelet production. Lithium carbonate or folate may also be used to stimulate the bone marrow production of platelets. Platelet transfusions may be used to stop episodic abnormal bleeding caused by a low platelet count. However, if platelet destruction results from an immune disorder, platelet infusions may have only a minimal effect and may be reserved for life-threatening bleeding.

Splenectomy may be necessary to correct thrombocytopenia caused by platelet destruction. A splenectomy should significantly reduce platelet destruction because the spleen acts as the primary site of platelet removal and antibody production.

Patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura may require high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin. Patients with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura will probably require large-volume plasma exchange.


How Can Thrombocytopenia Be Prevented?

Whether you can prevent thrombocytopenia depends on its specific cause. Most cases of the condition can't be prevented. However, you can take steps to prevent its complications.

  • Avoid heavy drinking. Alcohol slows the production of platelets.
  • Avoid medicines that have decreased your platelet count in the past.
  • Be aware of medicines that may affect your platelets and raise your risk for bleeding. Two examples of such medicines are aspirin and ibuprofen. These medicines may thin your blood too much.
  • Talk with your doctor about getting vaccinated for viruses that can affect your platelets. You may need vaccines for mumps, measles, rubella, and chickenpox. You may want to have your child vaccinated for these viruses as well. Talk to you child's doctor about these vaccines.


What is What is Leukopenia?
Leukopenia is the decreased concentration of white blood cells in the blood or leukocytes. When there is a lowered amount of white blood cells in the blood, there is a higher risk of contracting an infection. Thrombocytopenia can be seen in leukopenia cases and will need to be treated with steroids, vitamins, and immunosuppressants. Having leukopenia doesn't always mean a patient will also have thrombocytopenia, however. While having a low white blood cell count is not fatal in itself, it can lead to death if the patient catches an infection his body cannot fight. Lowered white blood cell counts can open the patient up to be a host to various parasitic diseases. The body, while fatigued and its immune system compromised, is in a fragile state.
What causes Leukopenia?
Leukopenia can be caused by medications or diseases that pose a danger to white blood cells.Examples arechemotherapy, radiation therapy, leukemia (as malignant cells overwhelm the bone marrow), myelofibrosis and aplastic anemia (failure of white and red cell creation, along with poor platelet production). In addition, many common medications can cause leukopenia (see below). HIV and AIDS are also a threat to white cells.
What are/is the treatment/s for Leukopenia?
Steroids and vitamins prescribed by doctors, cytokine therapy, chemotherapy and
in severe conditions, the patient may be prescribed a cocktail of drugs depending on the condition.
How do you prevent Leukopenia?
Medications which can cause leukopenia include clozapine, sirolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, tacrolimus, and cyclosporine. Interferons used to treat multiple sclerosis, like Rebif, Avonex, and Betaseron, can also cause leukopenia. The antidepressant and smoking addiction treatment drug Wellbutrin (Bupropion HCL) can also cause leukopenia with long-term use. Minocycline, a commonly prescribed antibiotic, is another drug known to cause leukopenia.There are also reports of leukopenia caused by Depakote (divalproex sodium or valproic acid), a drug used for epilepsy (seizures), mania (with bipolar disorder) and migraine. Increased white blood cell count may be present in cases of arsenic toxicity. To prevent getting Leukopenia, you may want to avoid taking this drugs.
Done by: Iskanadar, Nur Nadiah, Javin, Burnut, Gregory
Sources: Wikipedia,, and


What is Septicemia?
Septicemia is a severe illness in which bacteria is presence in the blood.

How can one get Septicemia?
Sepsis is caused by a bacterial infection that can begin anywhere in the body.
How is Septicemia treated?
Antibiotics such as Intravenous, Broad-spectrum antibiotics are often given in large doses. Specific antibiotics are given once the causative agent has been identified.
How can one prevent Septicemia?
There are vaccines that can protect you from it, such as Haemophilus influenza B or S. pneumoniae.
Group members
Bing Han
Kein Shuen

Monday, July 26, 2010

Coronary Heart Disease

-What is it?

Coronary Heart Disease refers to the failure of coronary circulation to supply adequate circulation to cardiac muscles and surrounding tissue.



By Smoking, Radiotherapy to the chest, diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, competitiveness and time urgency



-1 )Medicine

It will help in clotting the blood, reducing the risks of heart attacks.

-2) Angioplasty and Stent Implantation

-It improves blood flow to the heart by using a special balloon to open a blocked artery from the inside. After that, a special expandable metal tube (stent) is put into the site, and left in place to keep the artery open.

-3) Bypass Surgery

-It is an operation where blood flow is redirected around a narrowed area in the coronary arteries, allowing blood to flow more freely to the heart muscle.

-4) Implantable Cardiac Defribillators (ICDs)

-After a heart attack, some people develop abnormal heart rhythms that could be life-threatening. A small device, ICD, can be implanted in the chest and connect to the heart.



-Have a heart-healthy diet that are low in fat and cholesterol and include several daily servings of fruits and vegetables.

-Avoid or reduce stress

-Quit smoking

-Exercise regularly

-Maintain a healthy body weight

-Control diabetes and cholesterol

-Lower your blood pressure


Group members: Wei Chern, Wei Jun, Yan Jin, Keith, Niloy

Sunday, July 18, 2010

This video reviews the benefits of cord blood stem cells and the differences between cord blood stem cells and embryonic or adult stem cells. Focus on the differences between embryonic and adult stem cells.

Thursday, July 15, 2010

Kingdoms of Living Things

5 Kingdoms of Living Things.

Please visit the website for information on the 5 kingdoms of living things.

1. Kingdom Monera
2. Kingdom Protista
3. Kingdom Fungi
4. Kingdom Plantae
5. Kingdom Animalia

Monday, July 12, 2010

Cancer Cells

Post you research findings in the Comments Section (include qns and group members' names).

Qn 1: What are Cancer Cells?

Qn 2: List the top 5 cancer in Singapore/World.

Qn 3: Describe some of the current treatment of cancer.

Qn 4: Is the usage of handphone and an wireless environment safe? Discuss.

Tuesday, July 6, 2010

DNA Extraction at HOME!

Fwd: Plant Cell research

The Organelles of the Green Leaf Cell:
  • Nucleus
  • Cytoplasm
  • Cell membrane
  • Mitochondrion
  • Golgi Apparatus
  • Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
  • Smooth Endoplasmic
  • Large Central Vacuole
  • Starch Grain
  • Cell Wall

controls all activities in the cell— This organelle's function is important as the cell's processes need to be controlled it does that.

Cell membrane:
controls all movement of the substances into and out of the cell.—The cell membrane's function is important as certain things in the cell need to stay in, and others out. The cell membrane does that.

Golgi Apparatus:
where lipids and protein are stored and packed for secretion out of the cell. — The lipids and proteins need to be sent out of the cell, before that is done, a storage container is required. The Golgi Apparatus does that job.

Smooth Endoplasmic:
processes lipids, carbohydrates and other substances. — Lipids, carbohydrates and other substances need to be processed before they are used, and the smooth endoplasmic does that job.

Starch Grain:
stores the excess glucose produces during photosynthesis in the form of starch. — The plant will make extra glucose during photosynthesis, and it is useful later on when the plant does not have enough food. The excess glucose is stored away in the form of starch in the starch grain

Cellular activities takes place.— The cellular activities need somewhere to take place and the cytoplasm is that place

Large Central Vacuole
It is a water-filled volume enclosed by a membrane which maintains the cell's turgidity. It controls the movement of molecules.

Cell Wall
A cell wall is composed of cellulose and hemicellulose. It is fully permeable and allows all substances to pass through it. It gives shape and protects the mechanical support to the plant. — The cell wall give the cell structural support and thus makes it stronger as a whole

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an Eukaryotic Organelle that forms an interconnected network of tubules, vesicles, and cisternal within cells. Rough endoplasmic reticulum processes proteins and they are studded with ribosomes.

It produces energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by breaking down food molecule glucose through the process of cellular respiration. Mitochondria are sometimes described as "cellular power plants" because they generate most of the cell's supply of ATP, used as a source of Chemical Energy. In addition to supplying cellular energy, mitochondria are involved in a range of other processes, such as signaling cellular differentiation, cell death, as well as the control of the cell cycle and cell growth.

Root Hair Cell

1) What are the organelles found in the cell?

Nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane, cell wall, and vacuole.

2) What are the functions of these organelles?

Nucleus: Stores DNA which Is the cell, controls all cell activities

Cytoplasm: Place where cellular activities take place.

Cell membrane:It has selective permeable membrane, which controls the movement of substances in and out of the cell

Cell Wall: Give the plant its shape and is a fully permeable structure

Vacuole: Provides structural support and maintain turgor pressure.

3) Why are these functions of the organelles important to the living cell?

Without the nucleus, the cell cannot function.

Without the cytoplasm, cellular activities cannot take place.

Without the cell membrane, anything can enter the cell and it might get too turgid.

Without the cell wall, the plant does not get its shape.

Without the vacuole, the plant cannot maintain turgor pressure.

Human red blood cells

The red blood cell in human beings only contain haemoglobin and cytoplasm.

Haemogobin is a cell that is iron rich and is responsible for carrying the oxygen.

The function of haemoglobin is to carry oxygen for transportation to other parts of the body.

This function of the red blood cell is important to the other cells in the body because they all need oxygen to do their "tasks"

Monday, July 5, 2010

Specialised Cells Research

1. Students to research on one of the following cells assigned to you (e.g., root hair cell, green leaf cell, human muscle cell and human red blood cell), and get ready the following answers by next lesson.

Area of focus:
a. What are the organelles found in the cell?

b. What are the functions of these organelles?

c. Why are these functions of the organelles important to the living cell?

Interactive Websites for Learning (Animal & Plant Cell)

1. CELLS alive! represents 30 years of capturing film and computer-enhanced images of living cells andorganisms for education and medical research.
CELLS alive! Interactive Animal and Plant Cell:

2. is a web site for educational learning and having fun at the same time.
Interactive Game on Cell Organelles:

Mr. Low